Phishing - websites, phone calls and spam messages that appear to be reliable and legitimate but are in fact fraudulent to obtain personal information. Phishing accounts for 49% of reported cybercrimes across all sectors. Spear phishing is a type of attack where a phishing message is sent to a specific person. Criminals carefully collect information about the user and try to personalize the message as much as possible in order to increase the level of trust.
Malware is malicious software that is installed accidentally, usually when you visit a malware-infected (but otherwise genuine) website or by opening an attachment from a phishing email. Malware can be used for anything from spying on keyboard input to infiltrating secured networks, and accounts for over 29% of reported cybercrimes.
Denial of Service (DOS) is a massively organized attack that floods a computer system (often a website) with many requests for information, rendering it unable to respond to real users. DOS attacks are usually based on "botnets" - vast networks of compromised and remotely controlled computer systems.
Ransomware is a type of malware that blocks users' access to a computer system, often by encrypting their data and threatening to delete it until the ransom is paid. Research shows that 54% of all UK businesses have been victims of such attacks.
Skimming is one of the fraudulent activity with bank cards. It means reading information from a magnetic stripe using a special technical device (skimmer). At the same time, criminals try to find out the PIN code of the "skimmed" card. This is done with the help of special devices that are difficult to see with an eye, so any of us can become a victim of scammers.